a minute field that’s making a big splash
Nike indoor soccer cleats at present, some 200 scientists from Cornell and other universities and industry are working on 76 research projects here. A key thrust, of course, is to delve into some of the new tools that will fashion tomorrow’s Lilliputian circuits. One group, for instance, is working ”at or near ultimate limit of miniaturization” using electron beams to etch tiny circuits.
”Ebeam” fabrication, a technique being developed by scientists around the world, can create circuits at much smaller dimensions than the timehonored method of photolithography, which uses light to print circuit patterns. Researchers here want to see how far the technology can be pushed. Cornell physicist Michael Isaacson has used a ”pen” of highenergy electrons to draw a line onehalf a nanometer wide (there are roughly 1 billion nanometers in a yard). It is with this process he created the ”world’s smallest artifact.”
Whether any of this ultimately will lead to smaller and faster computers remains to be seen. But scientists at least want to solve a few riddles about the limits of certain tools. It’s known, for example, that a wire can nike mercurial cr be made so thin that it can no longer conduct electricity. Its walls clog the flow of electrons. But, the scientists ask, are there materials that will go beyond these limits?
”We are getting to the point where the technology is beginning to nike indoor soccer cleats outstrip science in this area,” says Dr. Isaacson. ”We can make structures to work at these dimensions, but we don’t always understand why or how they work. It is a whole new world.”
Other researchers are trying to create substances that will perform nike mercurial cr entirely new tricks. By combining aluminum and gallium atoms, scientists may come up the recipe for cheaper, more versatile lasers for use in fiberoptic communication systems among, other things.
Another focus: understanding better what happens to materials at ultrahigh pressures. Dr. Arthur Ruoff, head of Cornell’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering, is working with a team trying to squeeze gases to see if they can be turned into superconducting metals.
Working at these nike indoor soccer cleats diminutive dimensions, pressures can be created nearing those at the center of the earth. So far researchers have nike mercurial cr put the big squeeze only on xenon. The ultimate goal is to create metallic hydrogen. If hydrogen will stay solid when the pressure is relieved, it could be used to produce superefficient electrical transmission lines or to fuel rockets and aircraft.
”The submicron domain does have high potential for a lot of new discoveries, ” says Dr. Wolf, who is no newcomer to this frontier. In 1970, nike indoor soccer cleats while at Hughes Research Laboratories, he helped etch 100,000 angels on the head of a pin. With today’s tools, roughly a billion angelic inscriptions could be carved on the same pin nike indoor soccer cleats.